Research Ethics

Research is a systematic and scientific pursuit of knowledge and its dissemination. It calls for strict adherence to ethical guidelines and standards that ensure maintenance of quality in academic literature, prove credibility of the research and the researchers, and improves the reach of the publication. 

At the Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, research is conducted with the utmost regard for ethics, academic integrity, and high standards of quality. Some norms and standard ethical practices widely accepted and actively promoted by the University are summarized as follows. 

Duties of Authors

Originality and Reporting Standards

  • Authors are the primary contributors who determine the academic standard of the journal 

  • The research reported in the submitted manuscript should be the original work of the author/​s and should not have been published before or should not currently be under review for any publication elsewhere

  • Research is an honour and a privilege and authors are obligated to reveal research findings by adopting the approach of revealing the whole truth, only the truth, and nothing but the truth’

  • It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that all the information and pertinent details provided in the research paper help other researchers prove, validate, and verify the results and claims reported in the paper

Acknowledgement of Source

  • If tables or figures have been reproduced from another source, a letter from the copyright holder (usually the publisher), stating the authorization to reproduce the material must be attached along with the manuscript

  • Information availed from any source — irrespective of the quantity — should be acknowledged in the research paper by citing the source of information in the format stipulated by the journal

Authorship of the Paper

  • All individuals who have contributed towards the formulation, implementation, execution, and verification of the research question should be given due credit as authors

  • All individuals who contribute to the research findings reported in the manuscript should be included in the list of authors. 

  • All authors listed in the manuscript should have clear, identifiable contributions to the manuscript

Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects

  • Manuscripts with research findings involving hazards and human or animal subjects should not be submitted to the journal without the required ethical clearance

  • The responsibility of obtaining a clearance from the appropriate ethical committee rests solely with the corresponding author

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

  • Any implicit or explicit financial obligations/​conflict of interest of the authors with regard to a research theme should not influence the research findings and the associated interpretation or inference reported in the paper

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

  • The responsibility of ensuring correctness and authenticity of facts, figures, statements, and opinions reported in the manuscript rests solely with the authors

  • Authors are duty-bound to notify the Editor-in-Chief of any correction or retraction to deal with inaccuracies, errors, or misrepresentations in the paper subsequent to its publication


  • It is the responsibility of the authors to maintain the academic integrity of the manuscript by conforming to the required standards of the journal and by taking steps to prevent plagiarism and related issues

Duties of Reviewers

Contribution of Peer Review

  • While authors are the primary contributors who determine the academic standard of the journal, reviewers are tasked with evaluating the merit and validity of the manuscript without bias, fear, or favour

  • Reviewers assist the editorial board in arriving at informed and justifiable decisions about the acceptance or non-acceptance of submitted manuscripts

  • With their research experience and accomplishments, reviewers offer suggestions to authors to improve the quality of the manuscript, whenever applicable

Confidentiality of the Manuscript

  • The role of reviewers is associated with honour, privilege, responsibility, and professional ethics

  • The research findings and content in submitted manuscripts must be used solely for the purpose of assessment and to arrive at academic judgement as well as to offer suggestions and improvements wherever applicable

  • Reviewers should not use any information— either in full or in part — from the manuscripts under their review for their personal advantage

  • Reviewers should not undertake the review of manuscripts whose research topic is beyond their experience, expertise, and area of interest

  • Reviewers should promptly convey their unwillingness/​their inability to review manuscripts due to personal or extraneous circumstances in order to maintain the set timeline for the review process

Objectivity of Review

  • The role of a reviewer is to serve as a referee; it is to judge or to assess the quality of research findings and to foresee any possible improvement in the content of the manuscript and the standard of presentation

  • The academic judgment, views, and opinions expressed by the reviewers should be supported with well-founded arguments, principles, and evidentiary information

  • The personal views of reviewers about the authors or the topic of the manuscript under consideration should have no influence on the academic decision

  • Reviewers should recuse themselves from undertaking the review of a manuscript if they foresee any conflict of interest for personal, professional or financial reasons

Duties of Editors

  • The primary duty of editors is to plan, implement, and oversee the review process of submitted manuscripts in a holistic and objective manner, without any personal or professional bias, while following the policies and guidelines of the journal

  • Editors must ensure that decisions about the acceptance or non-acceptance of manuscripts are guided by the recommendations of reviewers

  • The research content and findings reported in the manuscript should be used for the purpose of assessing the appropriateness of the research theme, the assignment of reviewers, and the final decision based on the recommendations of reviewers

  • Editor should opt out of the review as well as the decision making process if they foresee any conflict of interest for personal, professional, or financial reasons

Duties of Publishers

  • Publishers should ensure that advertisements — or any other commercial revenue associated with the publication of the journal — has no role or influence on editorial decisions

  • Publishers should adopt the applicable regulatory standards and adhere to best practices to exhibit professional ethics and conduct

  • Publishers will liaison with other journals or publishers to help editors in improving and sustaining the academic standard of the journal